Periodontics aims to treat and prevent periodontal diseases that constitute one of the most serious problems in dentistry (inflammation of the gums, bleeding, tartar, periodontal disease).
The reasons of periodontal diseases are plaque and tartar. Other factors that contribute to the emergence of the diseases are stress, hormonal disorders especially among pregnant women and women using hormonal contraceptives, improper diet, vitamin deficiency. Periodontal diseases are difficult to detect among the smokers because nicotine constricts blood vessels inhibiting gum bleeding. Periodontal disease can occur as a result of systemic diseases including Down’s syndrome, allergic diseases, diabetes and leukemia.
Periodontitis is closely related to inflammation of the gums. Healthy gums are pale pink, entirely fill the spaces between the teeth, do not respond to pain or bleeding when brushing, their consistency is hard. Gingivitis is formed as a result of inflammation of soft tissues surrounding the tooth. The inflammation is evoked by the bacteria and their toxins in dental plaque. Some of the symptoms include gum bleeding when brushing, swelling, bad breath, pain and red colour of the gums. It happens sometimes that the inflammation is invisible and is revealed only after removal of the dental deposits because not always the inflammation covers the outer part of the gum.
As a result of the long-term gingivitis a periodontal disease called periodontitis develops. It forms insidiously, from minor inflammation of the soft tissues to the serious inflammation of the gums with damage of the attachment apparatus, spreading further to the deep tissues. This leads to the formation of crevices called periodontal pockets. Bacteria and their toxins infect not only the gums but they also destruct alveolar bone. Therefore, the gum line gradually recedes and spaces appear between the teeth. Part of the root becomes exposed and the tooth looks considerably elongated. This leads to oversensitivity of the teeth.
In the early stage of the disease the destruction of the bone is asymptomatic. When there is a loss of the large part of the supporting bone, the teeth become loose and may eventually fall out.